What is the difference between the FAA NASA ASRS and ACSF-ASAP reports?
NASA ASRS is an anonymous, voluntary reporting program. When a report is submitted, it goes into a database managed by NASA that helps identify system-wide safety issues. Filing a report with NASA provides a waiver of sanction from FAA action, should FAA learn about the event independently, i.e., an altitude deviation. In this case, FAA can initiate administrative action against you, and your ASRS report receipt will provide a waiver from any imposed penalty, e.g., a license suspension; however, the administrative action will become part of your FAA file/record.
ASAP, on the other hand, is a confidential, voluntary reporting program. When you submit a report into ASAP, an event review committee works to determine the root cause of the event with your input, in order for the company to make any corrective actions that will help prevent a recurrence of the event and improve safety in your operation. A de-identified copy of your report goes into a database to help identify critical safety issues. Should the FAA learn about your event outside of ASAP, and your report has been accepted into ASAP, you are only obligated to participate in any corrective action that results. There is no FAA administrative action for reports accepted into ASAP.
The whole focus of ASAP is to determine the root cause of an event and not to place blame. The ASAP database cannot be accessed through a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request and is not reportable under PRIA.
If someone is telling you one is the same as the other, that person doesn't know what he is talking about!